SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS: INJURIES: CONCUSSSIONS : SPORTS: FOOTBALL: PROFESSIONAL (NFL): STATISTICS : DATA: Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data

 

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SPORTS MEDICINE :

SPORTS: INJURIES: CONCUSSSIONS :

SPORTS: FOOTBALL: PROFESSIONAL (NFL):

STATISTICS :

DATA:

Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data

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Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data

Ira R. Casson, MD,* Dr med David C. Viano, PhD, John W. Powell, PhD,? and Elliot J. Pellman, MD#

Sports Health

2010 Nov; 2(6): 471483.

doi: 10.1177/1941738110383963

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438866/

Abstract

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Background:

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Concussion in the National Football League (NFL) remains an important issue. An initial description of the injury epidemiology involved 6 years from 1996 to 2001.

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Hypothesis:

The increased attention to concussions may have resulted in team physicians being more conservative in treating players in recent years.

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Study Design:

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Two consecutive 6-year periods (1996-2001 and 2002-2007) were compared to determine changes in the circumstances associated with the injury, the patterns of signs and symptoms, and the players time loss from participation in the NFL.

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Methods:

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During 2002-2007, concussions were recorded by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers using the same standardized reporting form used from 1996 to 2001. Player position, type of play, concussion signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness, and medical action taken were recorded.

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Results:

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There were 0.38 documented concussions per NFL game in 2002-20077.6% lower than the 0.42 in the earlier period (1996-2001). The injury rate was lower in quarterbacks and wide receivers but significantly higher in tight ends during the second 6 years. The most frequent symptoms were headaches and dizziness; the most common signs were problems with information processing and immediate recall. During 2002-2007, a significantly lower fraction of concussed players returned to the same game, and more were removed from play. Most concussed players (83.5%) returned to play in < 7 days; the percentage decreased to 57.4% with loss of consciousness. The number of players returning in < 7 days was 8% lower during 2002-2007 and 25% lower for those with loss of consciousness.

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Conclusion:

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The most recent 6 years of NFL concussion data show a remarkable similarity to the earlier period. However, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of players returning to the same game, and players were held out of play longer.

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Clinical Relevance:

There was a more conservative management of concussion in NFL players from 2002 to 2007 even though the clinical signs and symptoms remained similar to the earlier 6-year period.

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Keywords:

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concussion, traumatic brain injury, injury epidemiology, sport injury prevention

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Topics Covered in This Article

Materials and Methods

Signs and Symptoms

Data Documentation

Data Analysis and Statistics

Results

Discussion

Physician Management of Concussion

Neuropsychological Testing

Change in Concussion Incidence

Rules of Play

Tight Ends

Kickoffs and Punts

Quarterbacks and Defensive Linemen

Summary

There are a number of possible explanations for the changes in the RTP data and the incidence of concussion during the second 6-year period. Multiple factors may have played a role in causing these differences, including the efforts by the NFL, the NFL Players Association, NFL team athletic trainers and physicians, and safety equipment manufacturers to ameliorate the effects of head injury on NFL players.
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Acknowledgments

The authors were members of the National Football Leagues Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee during the conduct of this research. Funding for the research was provided by the National Football League and NFL Charities, the latter of which is funded by the National Football League Players Association and the league. Their support and encouragement to conduct research on concussion are greatly appreciated.

The opinions and views presented in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily the National Football League. They are offered as part of an effort to better understand the causes and consequences of playing football on the brain and to lay out what additional efforts are needed to prevent brain injury and improve the health, safety, and welfare of individuals playing football.

The assistance of the National Football League team physicians and athletic trainers is appreciated in filling out the concussion reports, and so are the players who consented to participate in the epidemiology study through a blinded identification in the concussion database. We also thank the staff at Med Sports Systems for their efforts in managing and verifying the concussion data.
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Footnotes

The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest in the authorship and publication of this contribution.

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References

1. Casson IR, Pellman EJ, Viano DC. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:217-241 [PubMed]

2. Casson IR, Viano DC, Pellman EJ. Synopsis of the National Football League player health and safety meeting: Chicago, Illinois, June 19, 2007. Neurosurgery. 2008;62:204-210 [PubMed]

3. Pellman EJ, Powell JW, Viano DC, et al. Concussion in professional football: epidemiological features of game injuries and review of the literature. Part 3. Neurosurgery. 2004;54:81-97 [PubMed]

4. Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Casson IR, Arfken C, Feuer H. Concussion in professional football: players returning to the same game. Part 7. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:79-92 [PubMed]

5. Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Casson IR, Arfken C, Powell J. Concussion in professional football: injuries involving 7+ days out. Part 5. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:1100-1119 [PubMed]

6. Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Casson IR, et al. Concussion in professional football: repeat injuries. Part 4. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:860-876 [PubMed]

7. Pellman EJ, Viano DC. Concussion in professional football: summary of the research conducted by the National Football Leagues Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2006;21(4):e12. [PubMed]

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Google Scholar

Twelve years of National Football League concussion data IR Casson, DC Viano, JW Powell – Sports Health, 2010 – journals.sagepub.com Background: Concussion in the National Football League (NFL) remains an important issue. An initial description of the injury epidemiology involved 6 years from 1996 to 2001. Hypothesis: The increased attention to concussions may have resulted in team physicians Cited by 80 Related articles All 10 versions

http://tinyurl.com/yd8wfrpn

Content Sample

Twelve years of National Football League concussion data IR Casson, DC Viano, JW Powell – Sports Health, 2010 – journals.sagepub.com Background: Concussion in the National Football League (NFL) remains an important issue. An initial description of the injury epidemiology involved 6 years from 1996 to 2001. Hypothesis: The increased attention to concussions may have resulted in team physicians Cited by 80 Related articles All 10 versions

[HTML] nih.gov A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program BW Benson, WH Meeuwisse, J Rizos – Canadian Medical , 2011 – Can Med Assoc Cited by 114 Related articles All 16 versions National high school athlete concussion rates from 2005-2006 to 2011-2012 JA Rosenthal, RE Foraker, CL Collins – American journal of , 2014 – journals.sagepub.com Cited by 110 Related articles All 9 versions

[HTML] nih.gov Repeat concussions in the national football league IR Casson, DC Viano, JW Powell – Sports Health, 2011 – journals.sagepub.com Cited by 17 Related articles All 10 versions

[PDF] academia.edu Frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts in Pop Warner football: the cumulative burden RH Wong, AK Wong, JE Bailes – Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, 2014 – Elsevier A growing body of research suggests that subconcussive head impacts or repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can have cumulative and deleterious effects. Cited by 39 Related articles All 11 versions On-field performance of National Football League players after return from concussion NS Kumar, M Chin, C O’Neill – American journal of , 2014 – journals.sagepub.com Cited by 13 Related articles All 8 versions

[HTML] bmj.com Epidemiology of concussion in men9s elite Rugby-7s (Sevens World Series) and Rugby-15s (Rugby World Cup, Junior World Championship and Rugby Trophy, CW Fuller, A Taylor, M Raftery – Br J Sports Med, 2015 – bjsm.bmj.com Skip to main content. This site uses cookies. More info By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more here. Viewing from: Google Indexer. BMJ Journals. Subscribe; Log In More Log in via … Cited by 46 Related articles All 12 versions

[HTML] sagepub.com Descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries and concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014 DW Lawrence, MG Hutchison – Orthopaedic journal of , 2015 – journals.sagepub.com Cited by 21 Related articles All 8 versions

[HTML] nih.gov Frequency of head-impactrelated outcomes by position in NCAA Division I collegiate football players CM Baugh, PT Kiernan, E Kroshus – Journal of , 2015 – online.liebertpub.com … Concussions during the 1997 Canadian football league season. Clin. J. Sport Med. 10, 914. 33. IR Casson, DC Viano, JW Powell, and EJ Pellman (2010). Twelve years of national football league concussion data. Sports Health. 2, 471483. 34. … Cited by 47 Related articles All 10 versions

[PDF] semanticscholar.org [PDF] The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications C Korngold, HM Farrell – Journal of the American , 2013 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org … repetitive head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:70935, 2009 42. Casson IR, Viano DC, Powell JW, et al: Twelve years of National Football League concussion data. Sports Health 2:471 83, 2010 43. Guskiewicz KM, Marshall … Cited by 16 Related articles All 5 versions

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SPORTS MEDICINE : PRESCRIPTION DRUGS : SPORTS: PROFESSIONAL: FOOTBALL (NFL): Recommendations of the National Football League Physician Society Task Force on the Use of Toradol Ketorolac in the National Football League

 

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SPORTS MEDICINE :

PRESCRIPTION DRUGS :

SPORTS: PROFESSIONAL: FOOTBALL (NFL):

Recommendations of the National Football League Physician Society Task Force on the Use of Toradol Ketorolac in the National Football League

Matthew Matava, MD,* D. Craig Brater, MD, Nancy Gritter, MD, Robert Heyer, MD, Douglas Rollins, MD, PhD, Theodore Schlegel, MD, Robert Toto, MD, and Anthony Yates, MD

Sports Health

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435943/

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Abstract

Ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It can be administered orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or via a nasal route. Ketorolac injections have been used for several years in the National Football League (NFL), in both the oral and injectable forms, to treat musculoskeletal injuries and to prevent post-game soreness. In an attempt to determine the appropriate use of this medication in NFL players, the NFL Team Physician Society appointed a Task Force to consider the best available evidence as to how ketorolac should be used for pain management in professional football players. These treatment recommendations were established based on the available medical literature taking into consideration the pharmacokinetic properties of ketorolac, its accepted indications and contraindications, and the unique clinical challenges of the NFL. The Task Force recommended that 1) ketorolac should only be administered under the direct supervision and order of a team physician; 2) ketorolac should not be used prophylactically as a means of reducing anticipated pain either during or after participation in NFL games or practices and should be limited to those players diagnosed with an injury or condition and listed on the teams injury report; 3) ketorolac should be given in the lowest effective therapeutic dose and should not be used in any form for more than 5 days; 4) ketorolac should be given in its oral preparation under typical circumstances; 5) ketorolac should not be taken concurrently with other NSAIDs or by those players with a history of allergic reaction to ketorolac, other NSAIDs or aspirin; and 6) ketorolac should not be used by a player with a history of significant gastrointestinal bleeding, renal compromise, or a past history of complications related to NSAIDs.

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Keywords: Toradol, Ketorolac, NFL, Football

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Beginning with the introduction of ibuprofen in the 1950s, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been prescribed for athletic injuries in an attempt to blunt the bodys inflammatory response to injury, control pain, and aid in the return to sports.26 There are a variety of both prescription and nonprescription medications in this class of drugs. Among athletes using prescription medication, NSAIDs have been found to be among the most frequently prescribed (8.1%).1 Unfortunately, these agents are not without complications (see the following). Adverse events were reported in 20% of athletes using NSAIDs for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints.1

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Athletes may even take NSAIDs as a preventive measure. For example, during the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Canadian athletes used NSAIDs more than any other medication.17 Similarly, a survey of American football players showed that 1 out of 7 high school athletes took NSAIDs daily and that 29% of college athletes took them as a preventive measure on the day of a game.30 Warner et al31 found a similar occurrence in their study of athletes; independent of their analgesic effect, the athletes mentioned a potential performance improvement to justify taking these medications.

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Ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) is an NSAID that has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It can be administered orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or via a nasal route. Ketorolac has been used principally for its analgesic properties following acute strains and sprains, overuse injuries, and as an adjunct to narcotic medication following surgery. Ketorolac injections have been used for several years in the National Football League (NFL), in both the oral and injectable forms, to treat musculoskeletal injuries and to prevent postgame soreness. The only study, to date, examining the prevalence of ketorolac use in professional sports was performed by Tokish et al in 2002.29 These authors investigated the use of injectable ketorolac in NFL teams during the 2001 season. Their study revealed that 28 of the 30 teams that responded to their survey used intramuscular ketorolac. Game-day usage was reported at 93% with pain relief of 1 to 2 days noted in 50% to 75% of players. There were 6 adverse reactions reported, including 4 muscle injuries, 1 gastrointestinal (GI) complaint, and 1 case of postinjection soreness. Anecdotally, some NFL medical staffs felt that ketorolac injections were considered more powerful than other NSAIDs because of the route of administration in that many players felt that getting a shot was an intrinsic sign that they were getting a more powerful medicine.29 Overall, these authors found ketorolac to be safe and effective when used in the pregame setting of the NFL. However, they were careful to recommend further study to develop standardized guidelines for ketorolac use in athletes to protect both players and medical staffs from potential complications. Since the publication of this study, it is widely believed by NFL team physicians that the use of ketorolac has increased in prevalence not only in the NFL but also in NCAA Division I football. However, we are unaware of any objective documentation proving this hypothesis.

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Sports medicine specialists often use injections to deliver the intended medication directly to the site of injury (anesthetic or corticosteroid) or to provide a medication when oral dosing is not possible. Sterile preparation may reduce the risk of infection, but this can be challenging in the game-day training room or hotel setting. In addition, injections clearly pose a risk of bleeding and injury to adjacent structures. As with the administration of any other form of invasive treatment, informed consent has been recommended prior to administering injections to athletes.27

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Injections are typically perceived as a more aggressive form of treatment that has recently garnered attention from the lay media as a result of ketorolac injections used prior to competition in the NFL. Injection of medication to treat sports-related conditions is not unheard of, but there is no evidence of increased effectiveness owing to this route of administration. Orchard24 published the results of a case series involving professional Australian Rules football and rugby players treated with local anesthetic injections to facilitate a quicker return to play. This study showed an 8% complication rate associated with the use of injections in these players and was an important first step in trying to adequately define the risks and complications associated with injections following athletic injuries. Public perception of team physicians administering various therapeutic (or pain killing) injections to allow athletes to return to competition likely varies depending on the level of competition and public visibility of the athlete. Moreover, the literature is deficient in terms of the ethical considerations implicit with the administration of injectable medications in the athletic setting solely for the athlete to return to competition.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
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MEDICAL CONDITIONS: OBESITY : CHILDREN : DATA : REPORTS : SOLUTIONS: Tips for Raising Healthy Kids as Obesity Rates Skyrocket

 

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MEDICAL CONDITIONS:

OBESITY :

CHILDREN :

DATA :

REPORTS :

SOLUTIONS:

Tips for Raising Healthy Kids as Obesity Rates Skyrocket

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Tips for Raising Healthy Kids as Obesity Rates Skyrocket

Leslie Beck

The Globe and Mail

10/13/17

https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/ tips-for-raising-healthy-kids-as-obesity-rates-skyrocket/ article36584493/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/ybz7s6re

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This week, a comprehensive study published in the Lancet revealed that the number of obese children, aged five to 19, worldwide has skyrocketed tenfold over the past 40 years.

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The study, led by the Imperial College of London in collaboration with the World Health Organization, involved height and weight data on nearly 130 million people. While childhood obesity rates are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, the rise appears to have levelled off, at least temporarily, in high-income countries such as Canada.

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Good news perhaps, but our national childhood obesity numbers remain dismal and alarming. According to Statistics Canada, in 2015 nearly 15 per cent of boys and 10 per cent of girls aged five to 17 were considered obese, numbers that have nearly tripled since the 1970s.

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Kids with obesity are at a higher risk for asthma, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. They’re also more likely to be bullied than their peers who are at a healthy weight.

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Obesity in childhood also increases the likelihood of becoming an obese adult and developing the health problems that come with it diabetes, heart disease and cancer.

.

As a parent, it’s not always easy to recognize that your child has a weight problem. Kids grow at different rates and changes in body fat differ among girls and boys.

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Ask your family pediatrician to review your child’s growth charts with you. At annual check-ups, they should assess your child’s body mass index (BMI) for age.

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snip

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Topics Discussed in This Article

*

Start with a low glycemic breakfast.

Ditch sugary drinks.

Rein in their sweet tooth.

Follow the plate model.

Plan family meals.

Get everyone on board.

Get kids involved.

Ensure adequate sleep.

Limit screen time.

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.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : ORGANIZATIONS: NONPROFIT : BOOKS : JOURNAL ARTICLES: Database Search Results for Nonprofit Organizations in Terms of Structure OR Organization OR Roles OR Staffing OR Responsibilities OR Effectiveness

 

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CONTENT SAMPLE

Marketing for nonprofit organizations

P Kotler – 1982 – popline.org

 The purpose of this volume is to broaden and apply the conceptual system of marketing to the
marketing problems of nonprofit organizations. As used in this book the term marketing means
the effective management by an organization of its exchange relations with its various 

Cited by 1740 Related articles All 7 versions

[BOOK] Social organization of an urban grants economy: A study of business philanthropy and nonprofit organizations

J Galaskiewicz – 2016 – books.google.com

Social Organization of an Urban Grants Economy: A Study of Business Philanthropy and
Nonprofit Organizations explains the elites, corporate wealth, and human service
organizations as players in the urban grants economy. The focus of study is the Twin Cities

Cited by 499 Related articles

[PDF] researchgate.net

[BOOK] Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations

AR Andreasen, P Kotler, D Parker – 2003 – researchgate.net

 6. Explain how marketing strategies for nonprofits differ from marketing strategies in for  Title:
Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations Author: Alan R. Andreason and Philip Kotler 
Planning and Budgeting the Marketing Mix Chapter 12 Managing the Organization’s Offering 

Cited by 2769 Related articles All 5 versions

[BOOK] Nonprofits & government: Collaboration & conflict

ET Boris, CE Steuerle – 2006 – books.google.com

 URBAN INSTITUTE is a nonprofit, nonpartisan policy research and educational organization
established in  PREFACE Nonprofit organizations and government try to address many of the
same societal  rapid growth in health spend- ing—both greatly influence nonprofits‘ finances 

Cited by 236 Related articles All 6 versions

Find Full-Text @ Temple U

A review of models for measuring organizational effectiveness among for‐profit and nonprofit organizations

RR Rojas – Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 2000 – Wiley Online Library

Abstract Induced by unprecedented growth, invasion of for-profit organizations in the
nonprofit domain, and high-profile cases of mismanagement in the nonprofit sector, a recent
surge in the literature suggests ample opportunities for research to compare the

Cited by 235 Related articles All 2 versions

[PDF] jstor.orgFind Full-Text @ Temple U

Doing things right: Effectiveness in local nonprofit organizations, a panel study

RD Herman, DO Renz – Public Administration Review, 2004 – Wiley Online Library

Abstract This study investigates whether nonprofit organizational effectiveness is judged
consistently by differing constituencies and whether changes in board effectiveness and
overall organizational effectiveness (judged by differing constituencies) are the result of

Cited by 295 Related articles All 5 versions Web of Science: 73

[PDF] sagepub.comFind Full-Text @ Temple U

Do nonprofit boards make a difference? An exploration of the relationships among board structure, process, and effectiveness

P Bradshaw, V Murray, J Wolpin – Nonprofit and voluntary …, 1992 – journals.sagepub.com

 The contribution of board structure and process dynamics to organiza- tional and board  of a
recently completed survey of over four hundred nonprofit organizations in Canada  objective data
on organizational effectiveness are available for individual nonprofits: input effectiveness 

Cited by 349 Related articles All 4 versions

[PDF] sagepub.comFind Full-Text @ Temple U

Exploring strategy and board structure in nonprofit organizations

WA BrownJO Iverson – Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector …, 2004 – journals.sagepub.com

This research explores how nonprofit managers conceptualize their organization’s strategic
orientation toward products and services and in what way the governing board is structured
to match that orientation. Using the Miles and Snow typology of strategy and a survey of 132

Cited by 179 Related articles All 7 versions Web of Science: 48

[BOOK] Accountability and effectiveness evaluation in nonprofit organizations

J Cutt, V Murray – 2002 – books.google.com

This unique volume provides new perspectives on assessing the performance of nonprofit 
organizations whilst meeting the information needs of decision-makers, both internal (such
as resource-providers, regulators and clients), and external (including boards, managers,

Cited by 230 Related articles All 2 versions

[BOOK] The structure of women’s nonprofit organizations

RL Bordt – 1997 – books.google.com

Women activists paid considerable attention to how they structured their organizations in the
early years of the contemporary women’s movement in the United States. As the movement
has matured over time, what has happened to this preoccupation with organizational

Cited by 152 Related articles

Did you mean to search for: (“non profit organizations” OR “non profit organizations” OR nonprofits) AND (structure OR organization OR roles OR staffing OR responsibilities OR effectiveness)
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[CITATION] Nonprofit organizations in a market economy: Understanding new roles, issues, and trends

DC Hammack, DR Young – 1993 – Jossey-Bass

Cited by 101 Related articles

[DOC] academia.eduFind Full-Text @ Temple U

[DOC] Evaluating the effectiveness of nonprofit organizations

V Murray, B Tassie – The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit …, 1994 – academia.edu

In these difficult economic times, nonprofit organizations are increasingly under pressure
from funders, clients and others to “prove” that they are achieving their missions effectively
and efficiently. Aside from greater external pressure, better-trained managers and board

Cited by 156 Related articles All 2 versions

[PDF] jstor.orgFind Full-Text @ Temple U

Does the structure and composition of the board matter? The case of nonprofit organizations

K O’Regan, SM Oster – … of Law, Economics, and Organization, 2005 – academic.oup.com

Abstract This article discusses some of the key differences in board behavior between
nonprofit organizations and for-profit firms using a relatively new dataset from New York City
nonprofits. We provide evidence on the broader role that nonprofit boards play for their

Cited by 160 Related articles All 11 versions Web of Science: 42

[CITATION] Understanding nonprofit funding: Managing revenues in social services and community development organizations

KA Grønbjerg – 1993 – Jossey-Bass Inc Pub

Cited by 413 Related articles

Find Full-Text @ Temple U

Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

AR Andreasen – Harvard business review, 1995 – europepmc.org

 But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their
image–and increase the bottom line–by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful
partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization

Cited by 459 Related articles All 3 versions Web of Science: 75

[PDF] socialventurepartners.orgFind Full-Text @ Temple U

[PDF] Virtuous capital: What foundations can learn from venture capitalists

CW Letts, W Ryan, A Grossman – Harvard business …, 1997 – socialventurepartners.org

 William Ryan is a Cam- bridge-based consultant to non– profit organizations and founda- tions 
Thus when the grant runs out, nonprofit organizations are left to mount a time-consuming search
for funds to cover ongoing op- eration  foundations can use to build stronger nonprofits

Cited by 421 Related articles All 11 versions Web of Science: 40

[PDF] duke.eduFind Full-Text @ Temple U

[PDF] Enterprising nonprofits

JG Dees – Harvard business review, 1998 – centers.fuqua.duke.edu

 The Rising Tide of Commercialization Nonprofit organizations have tradi- tionally operated in
the so-called  and some nonprofits start experimenting with commer- cial operations, otber
nonprofits feel pressured to  will do tbe same-if only to main- tain a competitive cost structure

Cited by 1531 Related articles All 5 versions Web of Science: 157

[PDF] psu.ac.thFind Full-Text @ Temple U

Strategic performance measurement and management in nonprofit organizations

RS Kaplan – Nonprofit management and Leadership, 2001 – Wiley Online Library

 As another modification of the private sector scorecard frame- work, nonprofits need to expand
the  Figure 2. Adapting the Balanced Scorecard Framework to Nonprofit Organizations  every
department could align their day-to-day actions with helping the organization achieve its 

Cited by 1000 Related articles All 8 versions

[HTML] sagepub.comFind Full-Text @ Temple U

The construct of organizational effectiveness: Perspectives from leaders of international nonprofits in the United States

GE Mitchell – Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 2013 – journals.sagepub.com

Scholars have long debated how best to define organizational effectiveness in the nonprofit
sector. Throughout the academic literature on this topic various “models of organizational
effectiveness” have been proposed. These models are often derived from conceptual

Cited by 70 Related articles All 6 versions Web of Science: 21

[PDF] jstor.orgFull View

Doing better while doing good: Motivational aspects of pay-for-performance effectiveness in nonprofit organizations

L Theuvsen – … Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 2004 – Springer

Management practices in the nonprofit sector have been changing over the last decade.
Many nonprofit organizations are now mimicking the management techniques of for-profit
organizations. Referring to prevailing economic, psychological, and management theories,

Cited by 92 Related articles All 8 versions

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CONTENT SAMPLE

Accountability and Effectiveness Evaluation in Nonprofit Organizations

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1134613385

James Cutt, ‎Vic Murray – 2002 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

This unique volume provides new perspectives on assessing the performance of nonprofit organizations whilst meeting the information needs of decision-makers, both internal (such as resource-providers, regulators and clients), and external …

The Structure of Women’s Nonprofit Organizations

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0253333474

Rebecca L. Bordt – 1997 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Focusing on women’s nonprofit organizations founded in New York City between 1967 and 1988, Rebecca Bordt describes what these organizations look like structurally and explains why they have adopted a particular form.

Managing the Non-Profit Organization

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1136008101

Peter Drucker – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

The issues of mission, performance, people and relationships, leadership and developing managers are eloquently discussed and Drucker provides Action Implications throughout the book which are of practical importance to the reader.

Nonprofit Organizations in a Market Economy: Understanding New …

https://books.google.com/books?id=7IYeAQAAIAAJ

David C. Hammack, ‎Dennis R. Young – 1993 – ‎Snippet view

Expert contributors offer insights from economics, history, and other disciplines to define the nonprofit′s place and mission in a market economy––from soliciting contributions and recruiting volunteers to government regulation of …

Managing Voluntary and Non-Profit Organizations: Strategy and Structure

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1317411277

Richard Butler, ‎David C. Wilson – 2015 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Drawing on detailed empirical data and a range of case studies, Managing Voluntary and Non-Profit Organizations, first published in 1990, demonstrates how voluntary organizations formulate strategies for securing funds, providing services, …

Benchmarking for Nonprofits: How to Measure, Manage, and Improve …

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0940069431

Jason Saul – 2004 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

The no-cost way to improve your organization on a daily basis Most nonprofits are already benchmarking informally. This unique book defines a formal way to benchmark.

Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations: Winning …

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0470925531

Barry J. McLeish – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Donors, customers, and volunteers who provide the majority of resources that allow the nonprofit organization’s service to take place This … A fairlycommon example ofthis difficultyis the reallife scenariomany nonprofit organizations face today.

Handbook of Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations – Page 16

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0275923428

Siri N. Espy – 1986 – ‎Preview

Your plan for planning will need to allow for examination of some fundamental issues, such as your mission, philosophy, and corporate structure, unless you are very sure that these are entirely satisfactory and will carry you on to a better future …

Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs – Page 300

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0471151165

  1. Gregory Dees, ‎Jed Emerson, ‎Peter Economy– 2002 – ‎Preview– ‎More editions

A nonprofit organization is an organization, typically a corporation, that is organized and operated for a purpose that is … Not all nonprofit organizations are tax-exempt, but an organization almost always must be a nonprofit entity to be …

Managing Human Resources for Nonprofits

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1135021872

Kunle Akingbola – 2015 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

This book focuses on the unique characteristics, challenges and contribution of human resource management to the strategic objectives of the nonprofit.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next

Managing a Nonprofit Organization: Updated Twenty-First-Century Edition

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1439134898

Thomas Wolf – 2012 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

The revised and updated edition of the go-to guide that has been an essential resource for nonprofit administrators, managers, and business professors since 1984—retooled to address the challenges presented by today’s world.

Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs – Page 300

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0471151165

  1. Gregory Dees, ‎Jed Emerson, ‎Peter Economy– 2002 – ‎Preview– ‎More editions

A nonprofit organization is an organization, typically a corporation, that is organized and operated for a purpose that is … Not all nonprofit organizations are tax-exempt, but an organization almost always must be a nonprofit entity to be …

Managing Human Resources for Nonprofits

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1135021872

Kunle Akingbola – 2015 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

This book focuses on the unique characteristics, challenges and contribution of human resource management to the strategic objectives of the nonprofit.

Farm chemicals in groundwater: strategies for nonprofits

https://books.google.com/books?id=VmhBAQAAIAAJ

Arlana Kemp, ‎Minnesota Project (Organization) – 1988 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions

Strategic Management for Nonprofit Organizations: Theory and Cases

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0198024649

Sharon M. Oster – 1995 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

The value of the output of the organization—since it is often not purchased on the marketplace—is ambiguous. Clients may value the service quite differently from either donors, the public, or the staff. In part because the nonprofit serves these …

Handbook of Research on Managerial Solutions in Non-Profit Organizations

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1522507329

Potocan, Vojko, ‎Ün?an, Mustafa C., ‎Nedelko, Zlatko – 2016 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

easier and more secure than other funding sources (grant funding, donations) of non-profit organizations to find cash in case of cash … They have to be prepared for both cash surplus and cash deficits for non-profit organizations‘ effectiveness.

Nonprofit Organizations: An Introduction

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1134380909

Helmut K. Anheier – 2006 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Figure 10.1 Stakeholder chart of nonprofit organizations. (a) Child day care center; (b) Art museum The result is that several rationales, or bottom lines, operate in nonprofit organizations. Of course, not every nonprofit organization will have two …

Nonprofit Organizations in an Age of Uncertainty: A Study of …

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0202367517

Joseph Galaskiewicz, ‎Wolfgang Bielefeld – Preview – ‎More editions

An especially interesting identify shift takes place when a normative organization attempts to become more utilitarian (see Horch 1992) or even for-profit (see Ginsberg and Buchholtz 1990) or a utilitarian organization attempts to become more …

Guidelines for Writing Successful Grant Proposals for Nonprofit …

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1452065543

Carolyn M. Driver, Ma. – 2010 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Chapter 10: Capability Statement The responsibility of convincing a .funder that an organization is capable of carrying out a … This could be other non-profit organizations, the business community, community groups, educational institutes, …

Nonprofit Boards of Directors: Analyses and Applications – Page 48

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1412829798

Robert D. Herman, ‎Jon Van Til – 1985 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Analyses and Applications Robert D. Herman, Jon Van Til. Board-Staff Relations and Perceived Effectiveness in Nonprofit Organizations Robert D. Herman and F. Peter Tulipana Boards of directors perform both internal and external functions.

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Temple University

(215) 204 – 4584

jwne@temple.edu

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DISASTERS: HURRICANES : PUERTO RICO : THE CARIBBEAN : POLICITICAL CORRUPTION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBRETARIANISM : SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION : RACISM : HATE : ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL: President Trump Has No Idea What’s Happening in Puerto Rico

 

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DISASTERS: HURRICANES :

PUERTO RICO :

THE CARIBBEAN :

POLICITICAL CORRUPTION :

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY :

INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM :

LIBRETARIANISM :

SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION :

RACISM :

HATE :

ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE :

CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL:

President Trump Has No Idea What’s Happening in Puerto Rico

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.

President Trump Has No Idea What’s Happening in Puerto Rico

By Jeremy Konyndyk

October 6, 2017

Washington Post

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/posteverything/wp/2017/10/06/ president-trump-has-no-idea-whats-happening-in-puerto-rico/ ?utm_term=.02da778608dc

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A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/ycbsv2rx

Jeremy Konyndyk is a senior policy fellow at the Center for Global Development and teaches humanitarian field operations at Georgetown University. He served from 2013 to 2017 as the Obama administration’s director for foreign disaster assistance at USAID, overseeing the U.S. government’s Ebola response in West Africa and other emergencies.

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Extraordinary crises are the acid test of presidential leadership.

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As I learned while managing the Obama administrations response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014, a presidents personal engagement is the indispensable variable in ensuring a fully engaged federal crisis response. In the face of unusually complex and devastating emergencies, the federal government must transcend business-as-usual, mounting the sort of massive whole-of-government effort that only the president can fully mobilize. What the nation has witnessed in Puerto Rico over the past two weeks sadly demonstrates the inverse: the shortfalls that emerge when a president leaves a major federal disaster response on autopilot.

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President Trumps tactless comments during his visit to San Juan this week provide a good microcosm of the larger issue. Trump repeatedly downplayed the severity of the crisis; described his administrations response as incredible and unbelievable; praised the then-official death toll of 16 as something Puerto Ricans can be very proud of; told disaster survivors at a distribution site you dont need the flashlights he was handing to them; and claimed Puerto Rico had not experienced a real catastrophe, like Hurricane Katrina. Those remarks followed other comments from Trump and his senior advisers who have characterized the federal response as amazing, and a good news story.

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As tone-deaf as Trumps self-congratulations were, they reflect a much deeper problem than just a flawed communications strategy. The presidents remarks in Puerto Rico were factually wrong in ways that raise serious questions about whether he grasps the depth of the crisis and whether he truly has a handle on the federal response.

.

[Puerto Ricans are going to flee if President Trump doesnt fix hurricane relief]

http://tinyurl.com/y7wjo2de

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Consider the death toll. There have been multiple public reports that the official count (now at least 34) remains artificially low due to the breakdowns of communications and public administration on the island. The Center for Investigative Journalism in San Juan has been calling hospitals to inquire about mortality figures in areas they serve, and the nonprofit news organization estimates dozens and perhaps hundreds more deaths have occurred but not yet been documented. Trumps advisers, who include people with considerable disaster response experience, surely understand the death toll will rise. Yet the president seemed unaware.

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He seemed equally unaware that, his flashlights comment notwithstanding, 93 percent of the island remains without power. He appeared puzzled by the concept of water purification. While Katrina did have a higher death toll than the initial count from Maria, the devastation in Puerto Rico is affecting a population seven times that of pre-storm New Orleans and looks likely to take far longer to address. It is a real catastrophe, indeed.

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There is no way to generously spin the presidents comments; he appears to have a fundamentally incorrect understanding of the seriousness of this crisis. Whether he is getting poor information or simply ignoring his briefings, this is a critical handicap to the federal response effort.

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In a more standard disaster event, that might not be such a big deal. The federal government has seasoned and capable emergency managers who can, in the face of a typical disaster, mount an effective response even without close presidential involvement. The federal responses to Hurricane Harvey in Texas and Hurricane Irma in Florida, for example, were robust and effective. However, Hurricane Maria like Katrina has spawned a disaster that is anything but typical.

.

[My uncle survived Hurricane Maria. Despair over its devastation killed him.]

http://tinyurl.com/ycbn2poe

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Puerto Ricos crisis poses major difficulties for disaster responders. The territorys fragile infrastructure was highly vulnerable and suffered widespread damage. The logistical challenges of operating in an island setting make pre-storm evacuation impossible and slow down post-storm relief. Maria struck at a time when the Federal Emergency Management Agency is uniquely overstretched, having been on a round-the-clock operational tempo since Harvey struck Texas a month and a half ago. The response strains FEMAs normal operating model, which is premised on capable state and local disaster authorities leading most of the initial front-line response. FEMA has lacked that in Puerto Rico, in part because so many local officials were themselves caught in the disaster. So federal officials have instead had to play much more of a lead role, something FEMA is not accustomed to doing.

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Situations like this, when the normal federal tools are overmatched by the complexity of the crisis, require attentive, disciplined and creative presidential leadership. Yet in the critical early days of the response, Trump focused his attention elsewhere. He tweeted repeatedly about the NFL immediately after the storm, yet did not hold a high-level meeting on the Puerto Rico response until six days after Maria made landfall. In the absence of a sense of urgency from the White House, what emerged from his administration has been a comparatively modest federal response.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.

Puerto Rico is being treated like a colony after Hurricane Maria

http://tinyurl.com/yavqwtgv

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Nature caused Puerto Ricos latest crisis. But politics are making it worse.

http://tinyurl.com/y72whrec

Why would anyone in Puerto Rico want a hurricane? Because someone will get rich.

http://tinyurl.com/ycd8tefk

Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 – 4584
jwne@…
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

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DISASTERS: HURRICANES : PUERTO RICO : THE CARIBBEAN : POLICITICAL CORRUPTION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBRETARIANISM : SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION : RACISM : HATE : ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL: Trump Defends Tossing Paper Towels to Puerto Rico Hurricane Victims: Analysis

 

.

.

DISASTERS: HURRICANES :

PUERTO RICO :

THE CARIBBEAN :

POLICITICAL CORRUPTION :

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY :

INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM :

LIBRETARIANISM :

SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION :

RACISM :

HATE :

ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE :

CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL:

Trump Defends Tossing Paper Towels to Puerto Rico Hurricane Victims: Analysis

By Daniel Dale

Washington Bureau

Sun., Oct. 8, 2017

The Star

https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2017/10/08/donald-trump-defends- paper-towels-in-puerto-rico-says-stephen-paddock-was-probably-smart-
in-bizarre-tv-interview-analysis.html

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/yabftf7o

.

.

In a conversation that aired on Christian television station Trinity Broadcasting, Trump said a number of bizarre statements including a defence of the beautiful, soft towels he threw in Puerto Rico. The cheering was incredible, he said.

.

WASHINGTON

U.S. President Donald Trump lashed out at the fake journalists who criticized him for tossing rolls of paper towel to Puerto Rican hurricane victims.

.

The paper towels, he said, were beautiful. And soft.

.

They had these beautiful, soft towels. Very good towels, Trump said in a conversation that aired Sunday on Christian television network Trinity Broadcasting. And I came in and there was a crowd of a lot of people. And they were screaming and they were loving everything. I was having fun, they were having fun. They said, Throw em to me! Throw em to me, Mr. President!

.

snip

.

1. He attacked San Juans mayor again

.

snip

.

2. He took credit for inventing the word fake

Trump, as he so often does, called the media fake. And then he, it seemed, took credit for coining the word fake.

.

snip

.

3. He said Las Vegas mass murderer Stephen Paddock was probably smart

.

Trump has been calling Paddock sick and demented. This time, he added a descriptor rarely heard from presidents talking about the perpetrators of mass slaughters.

.

snip

.

4. He accused Iran of working with North Korea

.

5. He offered a bizarre explanation for his latest favourite health-care plan

.

The Republican health-care bill that failed in late September, known as Graham-Cassidy, would have sent states money and instructed them to design their own health systems.

.

Trump said the downward transfer of power is a good idea because it would allow him to stop personally taking care of peoples health problems.

.

I want to focus on North Korea. I want to focus on Iran. I want to focus on other things. I dont want to focus on fixing somebodys back. Or their knee. Or something. Let the states do that, he said.

.

Perhaps he meant he wanted to be free of having to deal with health policy at all, but the Republican bill would not come close to ending the federal role in the system.

.

6. He said his post-hurricane consoling makes him feel good

.

7. He took another step away from his campaign promise to move the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem

.

8. He backed off his claim that his tax plan doesnt help the rich

.

In September, Trump falsely claimed that his plan for tax cuts, which would predominantly help rich people, would not help the rich at all. His language was significantly different this time.

.

He said the focus of tax reform was the middle class. But he did not deny that rich people would get help too.

.

This is not a tax (cut) for the rich. Now, everybodys going to benefit, he said.

.

9. He made false claims

.

It is not a Trump interview without some wrongness.

.

He said, again, that the Coast Guard saved 16,000 lives 16,000 lives, he emphasized during the response to Hurricane Harvey in Texas. The Coast Guard says it conducted 11,022 rescues.

.

He said, again, that the U.S. is the highest-taxed nation in the world. It is below-average for developed countries.

.

He said, again, that everybody was shocked by the 3.1 per cent economic growth in the second quarter of this year. Several prominent analysts predicted such growth.

.

And he said, again, that Daesh, also known as the Islamic State, was created in the vacuum left in Iraq when former U.S. president Barack Obama presided over a withdrawal of troops in 2011. The group, which has origins back to 1999, adopted the name Islamic State in 2006, more than two years before Obama took office.

.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.

Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 – 4584
jwne@…
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
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Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
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OR

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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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DISASTERS: HURRICANES : PUERTO RICO : THE CARIBBEAN : POLICITICAL CORRUPTION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBRETARIANISM : SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION : RACISM : HATE : ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL: Fact Checking Trump’s Statements About the Puerto Rico Hurricane

 

.

.

DISASTERS: HURRICANES :

PUERTO RICO :

THE CARIBBEAN :

POLICITICAL CORRUPTION :

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY :

INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM :

LIBRETARIANISM :

SOCIAL ISSUES: IMMIGRATION :

RACISM :

HATE :

ENVIRONMENT: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE :

CLIMATE CHANGE: DENIAL:

Fact Checking Trump’s Statements About the Puerto Rico Hurricane

.

.

Fact Checking Trump’s Statements About the Puerto Rico Hurricane

By The Associated Press

October 6th, 2017 6:03 AM ET

Fortune

http://fortune.com/2017/10/06/ donald-trump-puerto-rico-hurricane-maria-fact-check/

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/y9bx557a

President Donald Trump struck false notes in addressing Puerto Ricos crisis in recent days, exaggerating both the ferocity of a truly ferocious hurricane and the pace of recovery. He also seemed to raise false hope that the territorys staggering debt would go away.

.

A look at his remarks during and after his visit to the hurricane-ravaged island:

.

Trump: This has been the toughest one. This has been a Category 5, whichfew people have ever even heard of a Category 5 hitting land. But it hit land and, boy, did it hit land. remarks Tuesday in Puerto Rico.

.

The Facts: As terrible as it was, Maria actually made landfall on Puerto Rico as a Category 4 hurricane, not 5. Winds were at 155 mph (249 kph), not 157 (253), the minimum for Category 5. Its a distinction no doubt lost on Puerto Ricansthe storm was even stronger than Harvey and Irma upon landfall, said National Hurricane Center spokesman Dennis Feltgen. But, operationally it was a Category 4 hurricane.

.

snip

.

Trump on Puerto Ricos debt: Were going to have to wipe that out. I dont know if its Goldman Sachs, but whoever it is, you can wave goodbye to that. to Fox News on Tuesday.

.

The Facts: Washington doesnt have the authority to force investors to take massive losses, if thats what he meant. And Trumps budget director, Mick Mulvaney, said afterward: We are not going to be offering a bailout for Puerto Rico or for its current bondholders.

.

snip

.

Trumps remark contributed to a plunge in Puerto Ricos bond prices. Falling bond prices are a sign that investors may be less likely to be repaidsomething that usually makes it more expensive for governments and companies to borrow.

.

snip

.

Trump: Who needs a flashlight? Flashlights, you dont need em anymore. You dont need em anymore. while handing out flashlights and tossing rolls of paper towels to a crowd in Puerto Rico on Tuesday.

.

The Facts: Its possible his particular audience did not need flashlights, but many Puerto Ricans do. He was visiting the upscale Guaynabo neighborhood, one of the fastest to recover. But more than 90% of the islands electricity customers remained without power at the time, nearly two weeks after the hurricane. And those who have it back are experiencing periodic blackouts.

.

snip

.

Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 – 4584
jwne@…
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
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OR

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Blog
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Articles by David Dillard
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Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
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